Black pine (pinus nigra).
Morphology: a tree up to 20-30 (50)m. The Crown of young trees from 10 to 15 years, widely ovate, thick, with age becoming more open, delicate, with the branches growing horizontally, slightly curled at the ends. Bark black-grey, with broad plates, especially in adulthood. The needles are dark green, thick, hard and spiny, slightly curved with a length of 10-14cm, live 4-5 years. Buds conical, pointed, gray-white, creating a contrast with dark green needles 1.5-2cm long. Young shoots are pale yellow-orange color. Cones conical, with a length of 4-6cm, immature green, Mature yellowish-brown when ripe fall to the ground, often sit on shoots 1 or 2-4 pieces. Seeds dark gray, mottled, 5-7 mm long, with a wing 2-3 cm Male inflorescence yellow-orange color. Dusting takes place in may-June.
Ecology and distribution: grows fast but at a young age, grows more slowly scots pine. Moderately shade-tolerant. Resists wind, smoke, gas, dust, and drought. Salt-tolerant. Prefers light, slightly alkaline soil with moderate humidity. Grows well in slightly acidic, light loam, black soil. Does not tolerate heavy and overly moist soil. In nature often grows on calcareous, dry and stony soils.
Distribution: In nature, it grows in the Balkans, in southern Europe, in countries like Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece and Albania. Mostly grows in the highlands-in the Rhodope mountains and the Balkan mountains, Dinaric Alps, Eastern Alps. Ascends the mountains up to 1500m.
The proliferation in culture: Widespread in the culture. Looks very decorative. In addition, the black pine is more sustainable in the urban environment. Grows well in the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia, to the South of a line Tambov-Saratov. In recent years it has become a well to grow and in the Moscow region.