Morphology: is almost indistinguishable from black pine.
Tree height 25-35(50)m and 35-50(120)cm in trunk diameter. At a young age, the сrown broadly pyramidal, with age becomes more horizontal. Over time the upper part of the crown becomes flattened. In a well lit area forms a broadly oval, openwork crown with long, horizontally spreading branches. Crown diameter can reach 20m and more. The bark is ash-gray, or black in color, with thicker and wider plates, which form a deep, longitudinal cracks in the lower part of the crown. Shoots yellow-orange, without pubescence. Of buds pointed, of widely conical, dense, resinous, white color. Buds with a length of 1.5-2cm. Needle rigid and sharp, elastic, evenly curved, thickness 1.5-1.8mm and a length of 10-16cm long, dark green in color, has a longitudinal line on all sides, vaginal 2-2.5cm in length. Cones broadly conical or elongated-conical, sand-brown, slightly shiny, with a length of 6-10(11)cm collected solitary or in small (2-4 units) whorls spaced about the axis of escape in different directions. Flaps of cones rhombic, with acute, not strongly projecting keel, the front slightly rounded. Cones ripen in December-January. Seeds 6-7cm long with transparent wings and a length of 25mm, greyish-black. Blooms in April-may. The flowers are pale yellow-orange color.
Ecology and distribution: grows mainly on stony soils containing lime. It grows well on loamy and clayey, calcareous. Can grow on very dry and poor, completely calcareous soils with a low content of ash elements. Prefers well-lit places. In the shadows grows poorly and may depend on various conditions such as the threat of diplodia. Grows well in lower, medium and upper part of the forest belt at an altitude of 500-900m above the sea level. At these altitudes, especially above 700m, in conditions of high humidity and frequent precipitation in the form of rain and snow, the has the most rapid growth and forms closed stands with a high site class. Very well renewed by self-seeding in open areas, especially after fires and cuttings.
On top of the ridge grows mainly in the rocky mountains, in difficult physical conditions. On a mountain plateau in Crimea, grows in altitudes of an average of 1,000 to 1,200m above sea level. On the hills of the high plateau often blow strong winds, the wind speed sometimes reaches 80-100m per second. In these difficult physical conditions, especially when it’s blowing a strong, cold wind, the growth of is weakened, the trees rarely grow above 2-5m, they often grow with flagoobraznye or curved shape of the crown. In micro depressions and wind-protected places, trees grow better, faster, and with a more beautiful canopy, but their growth rarely exceeds 10m in height. Despite the difficult climatic conditions for good development, bears fruit abundantly and gives self-seeding.
Develops a strong superficial root system, especially on limestone and rocky soils. Forms a strong Central root that can grow in rocky soil and hold the tree from the winds.
Forms both pure and mixed with other coniferous and deciduous tree species of the forest . Often grows with oak fluffy, at all heights, ash, field maple, small-fruited bottom Tees in middle and high mountain zone of juniper, hornbeam, aspen, beech East of the Alpine belt of mountain ash.
The area South of the Crimean Peninsula and a small area in the center of Gelendzhik, near the village of Arkhipo-Osipovka. The main area of the mountain range, the southern slopes of the Crimean mountains and Crimean Jajly. In the latitudinal direction, crosses the district from North to the line from Bakhchisarai to Walleye. Grows at altitudes from sea level to 1500 m above sea level.
A very decorative look. Widely used in landscaping. In older parks on the South coast of the Crimea are trees that are older than 100-150 years. Some of them grew here even before the development of parks. The size of these pine trees is striking in its monumentality. Crown diameter of old trees often exceeds 20m.
Is widely used in rock quality with great value forest grown in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the temperate zone. Tens of thousands of hectares of forest plantations were established in the fifties of the last century in the Krasnodar and Stavropol edges, the Rostov and Voronezh regions, Ukraine. In these regions, were quite hardy and fast growing breed that does not require soil, recreation loading, stress, dry air, smoke, dust and polluted air.