Eastern white pine
Eastern white pine, Weymouth pine (pinus strobus).
Morphology: large tree up to 40(50)m in height and 1.5m in trunk diameter. Trees at a young age have compact, conical shape of the crown, with age, forming a broadly oval crown, with thick ascending branches, especially in the lower part of the trunk. Bark at the young age of smooth, grey, thin, in adulthood, furrowed, with wide plates at the bottom of the barrel. Young stems thin, smooth, gray-green then grey. The needles are thin, soft, slightly drooping, collected in a quantity of 5, bluish-green, with silvery longitudinal lines on the inner side of the needles, length 8(10)cm. Cones cylindrical, 8-12(15)cm long and 2.5-3(4)cm wide, on petioles 1-1.5cm in length, collected from 1 to 5pcs in one internode. Immature cones are green, mature brown. Mature in the second year in late September end early October.
Ecology and distribution: Grows quickly. At the age of 45-50 years grows to 20-25m, after which growth gradually slows. In nature to survive 200-250(400) years. Moderately shade-tolerant, but develops best in well-lit locations. Within the boundaries of its habitat grows in almost all types of soil, in particular; on dry, sandy, mountainous, but prefers fresh, fertile, rich humus soil. Also grows well in drained loamy, light loamy, sandy loam and chernozem soil.
Can grow in boggy soil, but not always satisfactorily. Grows poorly on calcareous soils with a high alkaline balance. Does not tolerate salinity. Forms a strong, extensive root system. Hardy, wind-resistant, does not suffer from the buildup of snow, less sensitive to smoke and gas in contrast to scots pine. For good growth and development prefers moderately continental, wet, cool climate.
Grows in north-eastern North America; from the southern foothills of the Appalachian mountains to the island of Newfoundland in the longitudinal direction, and from Manitoba and Minnesota to New England in the latitudinal direction. A large part of the area located in the region of the five “great lakes” of USA and Canada. In the mountain rises to 1,200m. Growing in different ecosystems and forest types, being dominant everywhere. Involved in the formation of predominantly mixed forest ecosystems, but sometimes grows in small groups. This is the most fast growing species in the North-Eastern part of North America. Grows together with species such as red pine (pinus resinosa), jeck pine (pinus banksiana), balsam fir (abies balsamea), black spruce (picea mariana), canadadian spruce (picea canadiensis) red spruce (picea rubra); thuja occidentalis (thuja occidentalis), silver maple (acer sacharinum), red maple (acer. rubra) and canadian (acer. sacharum), paper birch (betula papyrifera), yellow birch (betula yellow) cherry birch (betula lenta) capolista (betula populifolia) and elegancka (betula alleganensis), red oak (querqus rubra), black walnut (walnut cinerea), american ash (fraxinus americana), and black (f. nigra), and others.
In Russia since the late 18th century Weymouth pines grow in the estates and parks as an exotic tree. Individual trees live up to 150 years. In forest plantations, white pine may be embedded in the middle strip of Russia, in the steppe zone and in more southern regions, for example, in the Caucasus.
Consider the weak stability of the Weymouth pine to fungal diseases, especially to rust, which can devastate the culture of this species. Gooseberries and currants are intermediate vectors of the disease. In summer on the leaves of currants, gooseberries ripen teliospores, from which in autumn are developing basidium, basidiospores infect pine needles, and then the fungus affects the bark, branches or trunk of a tree. After a year on the affected branches of the first mushrooms to appear yellow-orange color. The result of the affected branches wither. Methods of dealing with dusty rust is practically absent, but if the sources of pollution are located at a considerable distance from pine plantations, the risk of infection can be significantly reduced. This also applies to other pines in the section “North American origin strobus” white-barreled pine, California pine, mountain Weymouth.